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GMAT Adds New Thinking Cap

Originally published By D.D. GUTTENPLAN, Published: May 17, 2012 @  The New York Times

Starting next month, prospective business school applicants who sit down to take the Graduate Management Admissions Test, or GMAT, may notice something different: Instead of a three-part exam testing verbal and mathematical skills and analytic writing ability, there will be a four-part exam with a new section devoted to integrated reasoning.

The new section is designed to test the ability to evaluate and synthesize data from various sources presented in a number of different formats, and to predict plausible and probable outcomes. It is also partly there for security purposes, as reports of cheating have risen.

Admissions officers evaluating the latest crop of applicants can expect the continuation of a trend that began about five years ago: a sharply rising proportion of applicants from mainland China. In 2007, just over 7,600 Chinese citizens or residents, or roughly 3 percent of the total, took the exam. In 2009, the number jumped to over 16,000, and it is expected to reach 45,000 next year, accounting for about 16 percent of the 280,000 applicants expected to take the test. That is in addition to thousands of test-takers from Hong Kong and Taiwan.

According to Alex Chisholm, director of statistical analysis for the Graduate Management Admission Council, or GMAC, the nonprofit consortium of business schools that develops and administers the GMAT, the growth in the numbers of Chinese applicants is a phenomenon that goes well beyond business schools.

“Schools around the world are seeing this coming into their pipelines,” he said.

Nor has the impact of globalization on business school admissions been confined to China.

India had more than 13,000 applicants in 2007, but “a rapid depreciation in the value of the rupee in 2009” meant that numbers remained relatively flat, Mr. Chisholm said, explaining that he was referring to “test years,” which run from June to June. “However, in the first 10 months of the 2012 test year, applications from India are up 16 percent.”

Students from the Asia-Pacific region are expected to make up 61 percent of the international applicants for full-time M.B.A. programs in United States, Mr. Chisholm said. He added that the new integrated reasoning section was intended partly in order to help assess the new, more global, candidate pool.

Ashok Sarathy, GMAC’s vice president in charge of the testing program, said the exam had undergone “a continuous evolution” since it was introduced in February 1954 by a group of nine business schools in the United States.

They included those at Harvard, Columbia, the University of Pennsylvania and Northwestern.

“In 1961, we added a section on data sufficiency to the quantitative reasoning section, asking candidates to decide whether the sample of data presented was sufficient to answer certain questions,” Mr. Sarathy said. “In 1976, we dropped a section on antonyms and analogies from the verbal reasoning section, and added a section on reading comprehension. In 1994, we added a component testing analytical writing ability.”

Today, the GMAT, which costs $250 regardless of location, is offered in 110 countries and accepted by 5,400 programs, including business schools and graduate programs in accounting, business, finance and management. In the United States, its most prominent competitor is the Graduate Record Examination, or G.R.E., which costs $160 in the United States and $190 overseas.

But “we have competitors in all markets,” Mr. Sarathy said.

Unlike the G.R.E., which is offered in electronic and paper-based versions, the GMAT is a computer-adaptive test, meaning that questions answered correctly are followed by more difficult questions, while mistaken answers are followed by easier questions. Also, unlike the G.R.E. or other standardized tests like that SAT, the GMAT does not allow skipping questions or modifying previous answers.

The final score is given on a scale of 200 to 800 derived solely from the mathematical and verbal portions of the test. In 2010, the mean score was 544, while 720 was the median score for students admitted to Harvard and the Wharton School, which is part of the University of Pennsylvania. The new section, which will be graded on a scale of one to eight, joins the analytical writing section, graded on a scale of zero to six, as “a separate data point” outside the composite score.

In part, the new section on integrative reasoning was a response to demand from business schools “asking for a way to evaluate a new set of skills,” Mr. Sarathy said.

“We did a survey of more than 740 faculty from schools all over the world,” he said. “As a result, we developed a set of questions aimed at testing the ability to synthesize information from multiple sources in order to solve complex problems. They also wanted candidates to be able to indicate what information was relevant, and not relevant, and to be able to evaluate which among a set of possible outcomes were the most likely.”

“In a globally competitive world, the ability to analyze data presented in different formats — for example, in tabular or graphical form, or in written summary — and to then identify where you might find a competitive advantage becomes increasingly important,” Mr. Sarathy added. He cited the recent movie “Moneyball” as an example of a spreading awareness of “the importance of Big Data — the ability to really understand the numbers, and to know what’s important and to discard what’s not important.”

Sample questions for the new section ask students to use a table of Brazilian agricultural exports to answer questions about world commodity production, select data from a Venn diagram on population data, and to answer a question about fuel economy based on a set of equations. All the questions require a reasonable degree of proficiency in reading English. Mr. Sarathy said, however, that “in this section, we’re not measuring English language skills.”

“Instead,” he said, “we’re using English as a medium to measure higher order reasoning and analytical skills.”

The new section, which will take 30 minutes to complete, replaces the essay writing component of the analytical writing portion. The total test time is unchanged at three and a half hours, or four hours including breaks.

“One factor that went into the design of the integrative reasoning questions was the need to enhance security,” Mr. Sarathy said.

The rise in applications to U.S. schools from overseas students has been accompanied by a reported rise in fraudulent credentials.

“We take very seriously our responsibility to design a test that is fair to all applicants which produces a score that is a true measure of their abilities,” Mr. Sarathy said.

All applicants are required to show proof of identity, but in some countries, passports are required.

“China isn’t the only country where there are security concerns,” Mr. Sarathy said. “But we do now send passport readers to some countries, including China, to verify the passports. We also require applicants to submit to a palm vein scan before the test scores are released in order to make sure candidates haven’t previously taken the test under a different name.”

In 2008, a Web site gained access to actual test questions on the GMAT and sold them. By providing the integrated reasoning data in a variety of formats, and using pull-down menus and tabs, “we can minimize the ability of candidates to memorize questions and reproduce them on Web sites,” Mr. Sarathy said.

Online counselling for admission in IITs goes on

counseling 2012Counselling for admission to 15 IITs and IT-BHU and ISM-Dhanbad is underway these days and the students who cracked the JEE-2012 are participating in it. The counselling website had been opened for the shortlisted candidates from May 18, giving them a chance to fill their choice of courses. The online counselling would go on till 5pm on June 10. The candidates have not been asked to report in person for counselling.

All candidates with physical disability will have to report in person at the counselling institutes for a checkup before a specially constituted medical board. The IITs have asked such candidates to register for medical examination and chose the IIT where they wish to be examined.

For the convenience of such candidates, medical boards are constituted at IIT-Kanpur, IIT-Kharagpur, IIT-Bombay, IIT-Delhi, IIT-Guwahati and IIT-Madras.

The web release of the first seat allotment will be made on June 14. Seats not accepted in the first round will be allotted on AIR basis. The second seat round of allotment will be released on June 25. The third and the final round of allotment will be done on July 6.

For the first time, the candidates were given an opportunity to withdraw the accepted seat before the final round of seat allotment.

This year, 4,79,651 candidates had appeared in both the papers of IIT-JEE which was conducted by seven IITs on April 8. Out of the total number of candidates, 24,112 have secured ranks in various categories and 17,462 have been shortlisted for counselling for admission to 9,647 seats in 15 IITs and IT-BHU and ISM- Dhanbad.

Nishit Agrawal of IIT-Bombay zone bagged AIR 6 and topped his zone, Arpit Agrawal secured AIR 1 and emerged as the topper. Rohit Kumar and Shubham Chandak of IIT-Guwahati and IIT-Kanpur zone topped their zones. Rohit secured AIR 79 and Shubham bagged AIR 15.

The toppers of IIT-Kharagpur and IIT-Madras zone were Nishanth N Koushik with AIR 3 and Rumandla Nishanth with AIR 4.

Bijoy Singh Kochar of IIT-Roorkee zone topped his zone and bagged AIR 2 in JEE-2012.

In the categories, Rumandla Nishanth topped the OBC category. Zubin Arya, a resident of Kanpur topped the SC category in the country. Vikas Meena (AIR 642) and Khushboo Gupta (AIR 239) topped the ST and PD categories respectively.

In the OBC and SC categories, 4805 and 3464 candidates have been shortlisted for counselling. In SC and PD categories, 1,112 and 167 candidates have been shortlisted for counselling.

[This article was originally published on Times of India.]

IITs pitch for subjective JEE to improve student quality

The Indian Institutes of Technology (IITs) are planning to switch to a subjective question-based test from the current multiple-choice-based joint entrance examination (JEE) after criticism over the deteriorating quality of students.

The new test will seek to evaluate the knowledge and analytical ability of aspiring students. Critics of the current format, which comprises two multiple-choice papers, include Infosys Ltd chairman emeritus N.R. Narayana Murthy and other executives and alumni.

The move is also being seen by some academicians as a compromise between the government and the IITs over a common entrance exam for all engineering schools. The government wants to conduct a nationwide objective-type selection test for millions of students aspiring for such colleges, including the IITs.

The IITs themselves now favour a two-tier selection process, where the top rank holders in the objective test will be eligible to appear for a finalsubjective question-based evaluation.

The human resource development (HRD) ministry has been informed about the proposal to change the selection process by the senates of at least the five older IITs. The senate is the highest decision-making body at an IIT and comprises senior professors, the director and some outside experts, including former students and executives.

“Selecting students through an objective test is not the best way to get quality students for institutes like IITs,” said Sanjeev Sanghi, president of the IIT Delhi faculty forum. “We need to go back to the subjective format.”

Murthy said at an IIT alumni meet in New York in October last year that JEE coaching centres had led to the deteriorating quality of students entering the colleges. “But their performance in IITs, at jobs or when they come for higher education in institutes in the US is not as good as it used to be,” he said. “This has to be corrected. A new method of selection of students to IITs has to be arrived at.”

While the top 20% of IITians can “stand among the best anywhere in the world”, the quality of the remaining 80% wasn’t as sound, Murthy had said.

Pramod Maheshwari, chief executive of Career Point, an education company that prepares students for the JEE examination, said it wasn’t fair to blame the coaching institutes.

“They should ask why students go for coaching in the first place,” said Maheshwari, himself an IIT alumnus. “The quality of questions when we gave JEE (in 1989) was much tougher than what it is today.”

But Maheshwari said the suggested change would be a good move. “If you make the entrance subjective, it will help for sure,” he said.

On the other hand, Maheshwari suggests that blaming the coaching centres is to ignore other ills in the system. “The standard of many IIT faculties is not very good and they need to do self-audit without blaming coaching centres, who have no say on the entrance,” he said.

The IITs insist though that changing the entrance format will have a significant impact on student quality.

The decline in quality is linked to the switch in the format to objective-type questions in 2005-06, said a senior IIT Bombay professor who didn’t want to be named. Coaching centres’ methods are geared towards helping students spot the right answer out of multiple choices, allowing the undeserving to do better than more gifted aspirants with higher powers of understanding, he added.

The IITs seem to regard the coaching centres with some amount of distrust, even going to the extent of scrapping the JEE centre at Kota, Rajasthan, although it isn’t clear why exactly this had been done. The town is reputed as a hub for coaching centres.

In the new format being proposed by the IITs, the top 50,000 performers will be culled from the applicants that sit in the initial multiple-choice test. Those selected will be subjected to an in-depth, three-paper evaluation, according to IIT professors who declined to be named.

“Mathematics, chemistry and physics need to be tested in three different papers, maybe over two days. Papers will be checked manually by senior professors of the older IITs to create the rankings,” said an IIT Delhi professor. A senior IIT Kanpur professor confirmed this. Both declined to be named.

The JEE is currently the common admission test for the 15 IITs, the Indian School of Mines at Dhanbad and the Institute of Technology at Banaras Hindu University, which jointly admit at least 9,600 students every year. This year, 480,000 appeared for the JEE.

An IIT Bombay senate member expressed resistance to the HRD ministry’s proposal for a common entrance examination for all engineering schools starting next year. “We want a thorough trial in 2013 and then go for it in 2014. (But) the common entrance (exam) should not be the sole basis for the IIT selection process,” he said.

Himangshu R. Vaish, a former president of the IIT Delhi Alumni Association and managing director of Instapower Ltd, told Mint last month that it would be preferable to have a subjective JEE exam. The ministry’s common entrance may affect the IIT brand, he said.

The IIT council and the ministry plan to hold a meeting on the issue on 28 May, said M. Anandakrishnan, chairman of IIT Kanpur. “We will resolve all issues on that day,” he said.


[This story was originally published By Prashant K. Nanda @ ]

New Investment Avenue: Investment in Commercial Property

In the existing investment market one of the fastest growing domains is investment in commercial property. Unlike investment in personal property the rate of return is on the higher side.

The concept of commercial property is different from that of personal property. A personal property is mainly used for personal use whereas commercial property is used for business purpose

With economy on the rise, India is becoming an important market for investment opportunities. Foreign Direct Investment is coming in rapidly to the tap the potential resources. Especially, with IT industry spreading all over the country, even the smaller cities have become a hotspot for setting up offices. Further, SEZ has fuelled the expansion in the last couple of years.

The companies who are investing have to minimize the expenditure to maintain the profit margins. Thus, many companies are renting commercial properties rather than buying land. This factor has generated the growth of commercial property investment.

A commercial property can be used for various purposes like setting up offices, warehouse, branches, institutes and coaching centres. To cater these business units the property should be ideal for business purpose.

The basic requirements to look into before investing in commercial property:

  1. Understanding the location and deciding the quantity of investment: Investment will only bring return if the investment is made at the right place. One has to study the area in term of business viability. If there are growth opportunities in the region then investment is ideal. One should look into the plans of the government on whether they want to encourage investment. The interests of the investors are also important. Based on these factors investment should be made.
  2. Availability of necessities: Commercial property investment does not end with the purchase of the property. One has to ensure facilities electricity, water supply and security. The availability of proper transportation and easy connectivity should also be considered before investment.
  3. Legal issues: The property should be free from any legal issues. One must not invest in a disputed property as it may turn off the investors.
  4. Proper agreement: The owner must have a proper agreement with the business units they are leasing or renting their property. This is necessary not only from return point of view, but also to maintain goodwill of the property. Any act violating the law can be detrimental for the reputation to the commercial property.

The investment opportunities are ample; one must not just eye for the IT sector. The rise in standard of living has also played a major role in increasing the demand for commercial property. With shopping complex and malls opening at rampant pace investment opportunities are high.

Investment can be difficult initially due to shortage of funds. A proper planning would help in getting loans from bank or other credit institutions. What must be remembered is that a commercial property can be taken by a single business house or be rented to small traders. So, it is necessary to understand the optimum use of the property. Those who have the appetite to take some risk and earn higher returns then investment in commercial property is ideal. Nevertheless, it is always advisable to study the opportunities and threats before making any investment as a wrong decision can result in big loss.

Petrol price hiked by Rs. 7.54; mixed reactions from industry

The petrol price was hiked on Wednesday by a record Rs.7.54 per litre as rupee had a free fall, an unpopular decision that was attacked by allies of UPA government who demanded its immediate rollback holding it as unacceptable. The hike, the third in one year, came a day after end of the Budget Session of Parliament and Prime Minister Manmohan Singh speaking of the need to take “difficult decisions” on the third anniversary of UPA-II.

The decision of the oil marketing companies effective midnight tonight is the steepest hike in petrol price ever, the previous increase being Rs. 5 per litre.

Petrol price in Delhi has been hiked by Rs. 7.54 per litre to Rs. 73.18 a litre. In Mumbai it will cost Rs. 78.57 per litre as against Rs. 70.66 a litre. In Kolkata, Rs. 77.88 per litre and Chennai Rs. 77.53 a litre.

Oil firms had twice raised rates by Rs. 5 per litre – on May 15, 2011 when prices in Delhi were hiked from Rs. 58.37 a litre to Rs. 63.37 per litre and on May 24, 2008 when rates were raised to Rs. 50.56 a litre.

Finance minister Pranab Mukherjee maintained that the decision was taken by oil companies as petrol is a deregulated commodity.

The government had decontrolled petrol price in June 2010 but rates were last increased on November 4 last year. This despite oil price rising by 14.5% and 3.2% fall in value of rupee against the US dollar.

on Tuesday, oil minister S Jaipal Reddy had stated that the depreciation in rupee had necessitated an immediate increase in fuel prices.

But rates of diesel, kerosene and cooking gas have not been revised as a high-power ministerial panel headed by Finance Minister Pranab Mukherjee and having representatives of key UPA allies like TMC and DMK, hasn’t met for almost a year now.

Price of diesel, kerosene and cooking gas were last raised in June last year.
Mixed reactions from industry

The steep hike in petrol prices has evoked mixed reactions with a section of industry saying the move would further burden the comman man even as policy makers and experts felt the increase would benefit the economy in the long run.

Industry body Assocham said the hike would be another blow to the already crippled economy.

“This step will increase inflation and prove a big burden on the common man,” the chamber said, adding that an increase in petrol price is not likely to give much relief to the government’s swelling fiscal deficit.

The automobile industry too hit out at the price hike, saying the increase would hurt the sector which is already reeling under a slump.

“Petrol cars are not selling as such already. With this record hike, the situation will go from bad to worse,” Society of Indian Automobile Manufacturers (SIAM) Senior Director Sugato Sen said.

Planning Commission Member Abhijit Sen said the hike was due to declining value of rupee, which today incidentally breached the 56-level against the US dollar.

“It will have immediate impact on prices, but will not have knock-on impact on prices. This in one time price adjustment. It will not have cascading effect” Sen said.

Expressing similar opinion, crisil chief economist DK Joshi said, “Petrol does not have much impact on wholesale price based inflation as it does not have much weight in the index.

“It is not like diesel which is a transport fuel. The impact will be muted. But the increase has been very sharp. I think the WPI inflation will be impacted below 15 basis points”, he said.

Welcoming the petrol price hike, another industry body FICCI said that government should also deregulate the prices of other fuel products like kerosene, diesel and cooking gas.

“Rationalisation of petroleum products prices will provide the necessary incentives for the development of alternative and renewable sources of energy; encourage conservation; and more important improve the fiscal balance,” FICCI said.

The chamber said the increase had perhaps become inevitable with the continued slide in rupee value and “it can be mitigated by reduction in taxes both by the central and state governments”.

SMC Global Securities, Head of Research, Jagannadham Thunuguntla said the hike would benefit the state-run oil marketing companies.

“The government may think of diesel price deregulation following this as Parliament session is over,” he added.

(With inputs from IANS and PTI)

How the petrol price will look like now in major cities:

New Delhi
Now: 73.14
Earlier: 65.64

Now: 78.16
Earlier: 70.66

Now: 77.53
Earlier: 70.03

Now: 77.05
Earlier: 69.55

[This article is originally published on Hindustan Times]











जिंदगी की पोटली में
बंधी वो सुनहरी यादें
यूँ बेनकाब हो रही हैं
जैसे किसी पिंजड़े से
वो आजाद हो रही हैं ।

तिरछे आईने को भेद
उमड़ घुमड़ रही वो
बाहर आने की चेष्टा
बयां कर रही हैं ।

अन्तरमन में छुपे होने
का अहसास कर
और असहाय होकर
मन से बाहर निकल
सरेराह हो रही है ।
वो आजाद हो रही है ।
© दीप्ति शर्मा


मैं कोई किस्सा सुनाऊँगी कभी ।

मैं कोई किस्सा सुनाऊँगी कभी
आँखो से आँसू बहाऊँगी कभी
तुम सुन सको तो सुन लेना
स्याह रात की बिसरी बातें
मैं तुम्हें बताऊँगी कभी
मैं फासलों को मिटाऊँगी कभी
मैं कोई किस्सा सुनाऊँगी कभी ।

खो गये हैं जो आँखों के सपन
मैं वो सपन दिखाऊँगी कभी
भूल गये हो जो तुम मुझे अब
मैं याद अपनी दिलाऊँगी कभी
मैं कोई किस्सा सुनाऊँगी कभी ।

जब तुम मेरे पास आ जाओगे
तुम्हें अपना बनाऊँगी कभी
जिंदगी के हर पन्ने को यूँ
बेनकाब कर हर लफ़्ज़ में
कुछ हालात बताऊँगी कभी
मैं कोई किस्सा सुनाऊँगी कभी ।
© दीप्ति शर्मा

Sunny Leone unclothes Randeep Hooda

Indo-Canadian porn star Sunny Leone is a hot product of Bollywood. Fans can’t wait to see her sizzle in ‘Jism 2’, her Bollywood debut. Time and again Sunny posted pictures of ‘Jism 2’ and arise anticipation. Undoubtedly, ‘Jism 2’ has some hot and spicy intimate scene to offer. The recent picture of the film shows Sunny Leone makes love with unclothed Randeep Hooda.

A source from the film said, “Sunny Leone, unlike her porn clips will have clothes on and simultaneously will strip Randeep.”

Ironically, few days back filmmaker Mahesh Bhatt tweeted that Sunny might be a porn star but she is a feminine and like others she too feels shy to shoot intimate scene with her co-star. It is also said that the crew member stunned to see Sunny shying nature.

The picture shows nude Randeep resting over Sunny on bed. Leone was dressed in white.

First Sunny posted a picture from the film showing her in a bath tub then she a picture was revealed which shows the porn star in a two piece. The third picture from the film shows Sunny wrapped in a white sheet and looking seductively towards the camera but the fourth picture of her getting cozy with Randeep will sure raise the mercury level high.

By: Bollywood Mantra Staff on 22nd May 2012 | This article was originally published on Bollywood Mantra.

Ambedkar cartoon: Dalits have reason to be offended

By Nilanjana S Roy @ Sify News [This article was originally published on Sify News]

It is unreasonable to expect the Dalit community to not take offence at the cartoon of B R Ambedkar, drawn by the great cartoonist Shankar in 1949, withdrawn from NCERT textbooks by Indian members of Parliament earlier this month.

This is not because the cartoon is offensive, in its historical context. It depicts Ambedkar riding a snail, which represents the Drafting Committee of the Indian Constitution of which he was the Chair, with Jawaharlal Nehru wielding a whip behind him.

In his November 1949 speech to the Constituent Assembly, Ambedkar made it clear that he was aware of the complaints — one member had called the Drafting Committee the “Drifting Committee”, for instance.

“It was being said that the Assembly had taken too long a time to finish its work, that it was going on leisurely and wasting public money,” Ambedkar said, before rebutting his critics.

It is hard to argue, as many have, that Shankar’s cartoon was a deliberate attempt to depict a Brahmin whipping a Dalit. The cartoonist lampooned Nehru, Jinnah and other national leaders with as much sharpness.

He was treating Ambedkar as an equal to his peers, equally worthy of satirical treatment. Some Dalit commentators have made the more accurate point, which is that what was not offensive in 1949 may be felt as offensive in 2012.

To argue that the Dalit community should place freedom of expression above its sense of offence ignores the ground reality of the Indian experience in the last two decades. In recent times, few communities, political or religious leaders and groups have placed a principle ahead of the prospect of gain. Brahmins stung by Habib Tanvir’s criticism of their caste successfully shut down performances of Ponga Pundit in Chhattisgarh.

The Shiv Sena, setting itself up as the guardian of Hindu sensibilities, has stalled all scholarship into the lives of revered icons such as Shivaji and Bal Thackerayji. And a handful of Muslim leaders found it easy to capitalise on vote bank politics in order to prevent Salman Rushdie from speaking at a literary festival, allowing fanatics who felt that even Rushdie’s image on a screen caused great offence to represent the entire community.

The Dalits, already underprivileged, should have their chance along with upper castes, politicians and religious leaders who put on their best performances in TV studios, to reap the benefits of claiming offence.

These are considerable benefits, in 2012: claim offence and you claim valuable space, while shutting down art galleries, textbooks, scholarship, criticism and reasoned argument.

In all of these debates over the limits of free speech and the need to be sensitive to the dangers of giving offence, we have lost more than just our free expression rights, important as that is. One loss is a relatively minor loss of perspective: all of the threatened violence over books, cartoons, textbooks, art and cinema has been organised by political parties.

Though we may choose not to acknowledge this, it makes that violence much more containable than the kind of spontaneous outrage over literature and art which, frankly, hasn’t happened in decades. (Unless you’re including the people who insist on asking paragraph-length questions at book launches in the ranks of the dangerously violent.)

The other loss is major. This is the loss of the idea that if you’re dealing with art and especially satire that has cut deep, adding context is better than deleting the offensive material.

The late M F Husain’s paintings of goddesses lose their ability to offend when you place them besides similarly naked ancient sculptures of the gods. Rohinton Mistry’s criticisms of Indira Gandhi or Thackeray should be read alongside, say, Shankar’s cartoons of the Emergency, or chronicles of the rise of the Sena in Maharashtra.

With the Ambedkar cartoon, why ask for erasure when you should ask, instead, for more? Why was a Dalit blamed for the delays in drafting the Constitution? Because he was the head of the Drafting Committee?

Or because there were more subtle caste politics at work? Broaden the discussion, and ask why Dalit academics weren’t part of the process of critical pedagogy, but don’t tear the cartoons out of all textbooks.

In that 1949 session, Ambedkar began by addressing the criticism that the Constitution had been drafted at snail’s pace. But a little later, he came to a point that concerned him greatly: “In India – where democracy from its long disuse must be regarded as something quite new – there is danger of democracy giving place to dictatorship.”

He was echoing his colleague, T T Krishnamachari. In answer to a question about why the fundamental rights to liberty – including freedom of expression – were not stronger, Krishnamachari said: “If the Parliament of the future is not going to safeguard the liberty of the individual, I do not think that anything we put in this Constitution can possibly safeguard it.”

Perhaps once Parliament is done with protecting itself – and any group that screams offence – from any kind of criticism, past and present, it may have time to address Ambedkar’s fears.

Options for unlimited knowledge –

There are many reasons for the depleting quality of undergraduate and graduate students. One such reason is the increasing amount of academic pressure. The course curriculum is intensive and includes several practical sessions to help the students develop a thorough knowledge. Often these large amount of projects and assignments leave very less time for the students to understand the topic. The students often opt for unscrupulous practices like copying from online resources or getting it done by their seniors.

This leaves the students with limited knowledge. Although, the grades are higher but the value gained is minimum. The education acquired is only confined to the assignments. At times the students are at fault but then there are also situations when the things are beyond their control. Due to the tight deadlines it is often not possible for the students to clear their doubts. The faculty of the college is not easily available or it can also happen that the student is undergoing a distance learning program which in most cases hardly has any interactive facility.

Clearing the doubts is essential and it is important to have the proper guidance. Unless there is proper guidance it is difficult to understand the concepts and its applications. To make education value based one must work towards understanding the concepts. Those undergoing distance learning program should make sure that the university or college they have enrolled offers online tutoring facilities. If such facility is not available then the students can always opt for these online services available over the internet. Those into on-campus programs can also take the support of this type of tutoring. If the faculty cannot be reached easily or there is a major time crunch then the online tutoring websites are of great help.

What is important at the end of the day is gaining knowledge not the medium through of doing it. Students can derive great benefit by mixing campus and online teaching options. After the regular classes, if there is any trouble executing a work, then the support of online tutors can be taken. This will ensure that when working on any assignment or project the concepts are clear and the work is done properly, without copying it from any other place.

There are many online website that offer coaching services and affordable rates. Select the one that best suits the need and make sure there are quality subject matter experts for proper guidance. Mix this online way of study with the on campus program for the maximum benefit. It is not just learning a concept or theory but also understanding them and their applications in real time situations.  The one of them reliable and quality tutoring website is

iWantTutor Profile is one of the India`s fastest growing online tutoring companies. It is a unit of Fullerene Solutions & Services, which is a market leader in a wide spectrum of Techno – Business Consulting & educational services. Their mission is to provide world-class tutoring and high-quality education to students around the world. It has been providing quality education with the help of a 150+ team of highly skilled and qualified members.

Through its focused modules on Homework-help and preparation for examinations, their team have helped hundreds of students across the globe to achieve stupendous success in their schools and colleges. Their vision is to incorporate and devise all possible options that will enable us to reach out to more and more students and help us make a difference to their lives. has the added advantage of inducting Indian tutors who are in demand worldwide along with access to the latest web-based technologies in online tutoring. Our tutors are trained in the American and British accents, and are well versed with the curriculums in the US, UK & Australia .
The rigorous pre-service and in-service training programs and certifications that our tutors undergo, give them a holistic and comprehensive knowledge about the culture, education systems and linguistic specificity of regions from across the world. They are thus capable of handling any outsourced tutoring assignments with our current team.

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