Category Archives: Essay

Knowing your Sexual Orientation

Sexual orientation concerns the direction of one’s sexual or romantic attraction. The most commonly found sexual orientation in all cultures, including the United Kingdom, is heterosexuality, a sexual or romantic attraction for persons of the opposite sex (hetero comes from the Greek word meaning ‘other’ or ‘different’). Today the term gay is used to refer to male homosexuals, lesbian for female homosexuals, and bi as shorthand for bisexuals, people who experience sexual or romantic attraction for persons of either sex. Sexual orientation is the idea that people are sexually attracted to either men or women or both women and men. This leads to the categories of heterosexual, homosexual and bisexual. Some people identify with this idea very strongly. They may believe that their sexual desires are natural, that evolution or genetics causes them to be attracted to certain people. Others may believe that they choose a sexual orientation, often for political reasons. Still others may not be concerned with the cause of their desires, but identify strongly as straight, lesbian, gay or bisexual. Some people identify with this idea less strongly or perhaps not at all. They may feel that the three categories of sexual orientation do not do a good job of describing their sexual desires. They may choose other labels, like queer (Homosexual or arousing homosexual desires), dyke (a lesbian who is noticeably masculine) or pervert (A person whose behavior deviates from what is acceptable especially in sexual behavior).Or they may choose to avoid the use of labels for various reasons.

Understanding sexual orientation is an important part of understanding the society we live in. Attitudes about what it means to be a man or a woman are often based around expectations of heterosexuality. Fear that children might learn to become homosexual, or otherwise sexually ‘deviant’, leads to a great deal of anxiety around sex education. Violence, both physical and emotional, is used against people who do not conform to expectations around gender and sexuality.

Here are a few examples of various sexual orientation identities:

  • simply gay OR lesbian OR heterosexual OR straight OR bisexual OR queer
  • “I don’t like labels”
  • “Mostly straight”
  • “I used to call myself bisexual, but now I prefer queer”
  • “I used to be straight, but now I am lesbian”
  • “I am gay, but butch dykes really turn me on”
  • “All of the people I fancy are of the other sex, but I wouldn’t call myself straight or heterosexual”
  • “I am bi-curious”
  • “I think I am heterosexual, but I am very open to changing”

Most sociologists currently believe that one’s sexual orientation – whether homosexual, heterosexual or something else- results from a complex interplay between biological factors and social learning. Some scholars argue that biological influences are the most important, predisposing certain people to become homosexual from birth. biological explanations for homosexuality have included differences in such things as brain characteristics of homosexuals and the impact on fetal development of the mother’s uterus hormone production during pregnancy.

Differences between gay and straight sexual orientation appear at a very early age. In a study, a group of openly homosexual men were asked when they first became aware of their attraction to men and boys, when they realized that they were gay and when they “came out” to others. The group reported becoming aware of their attraction at a very young age, between 5 years old and puberty. Self-awareness of their sexual orientation took place around puberty, and coming out of the closet took place much later.

Finally, there is some evidence that the brains of homosexuals may be different from those of heterosexual men and women. The differences have been found in the hypothalamus, which controls eating, drinking, temperature regulation and sexual behavior. Studies done in the Netherlands and in Southern California have found such differences in several areas within the hypothalamus. One region, the mid sagittal area of the anterior commissure, is larger in females than in males, but also appears to be larger in homosexual males. Another area, the suprachiasmatic nucleus, which controls circadian rhythm, is larger in heterosexual males and females than it is in homosexuals.

But the question whether sexual orientation is inborn or learned still remains in a controversial stage, all that we can say is in the modern contemporary world the notions of gender and sexuality are fast changing, for instance homosexuality is now a more accepted part of everyday society than it used to be before. The modern world has become quite liberal and open, this is evident by the decision of the Delhi High Court which has legalized gay marriages. The fact that, now we can see people freely accepting their sexual orientation in public which 10 years ago would have been considered deviant and would have been looked upon as sin suggests that times are changing and we should all embrace the change.

Even gender roles and traditional beliefs that girls have to be pure and chaste and boys have to be macho and aggressive are fast loosening. The age old gender stereotypes are no longer operating rather a new society which is liberal in accepting different kinds of sexualities is coming up. Gender roles and norms regarding how men and women ought to behave have undergone a paradigm shift. Girls can now be seen in jobs which were earlier deem fit only for boys. All this shows that our society has come far away from the earlier prejudices but there is still a long way to go.



Sleep Deprivation!

Consciousness is what we are aware of the feelings, thoughts, sensations and environments but the consciousness get alter when we sleep, take medicines, hypnosis and take drugs. Now, it comes as why we need to sleep? The simple answer is that body and mind both need to restore. There are two kinds of sleep such as non-rapid eye movement and rapid eye movement. It has been found from the research that each cycle of sleep is about 5-90 minutes. For the different age group of humans the sleep time is different as newborn child sleep almost for 20 hours and older people sleep for less than 6 hours. Even though it is know that prolonged wakefulness effects human body badly. As by the research by Patrick and Gilbert in year 1986 that the wakefulness for 90 hours continuously causes in decrease in sensory acuity, motor speed, ability to memorise, and production of visual hallucinations. This happens because of the not having the proper sleep and that is called as sleep deprivation. It might be of different kinds such as chronic and acute. There are many psychological effects on the human body and mind because of this sleep deprivation. Total and partial deprivation effects human bond and mind in different ways such as it disturbs the concentration, learning and mood. The brain activity also changes in wrong side and doesn’t work effectively. Till today there has not been such kind of neurological study on sleep deprived individuals. Awakening for a long time will surely affect the human body and will cause the number of sleep disorders such as Parasomnias where the awake take place while sleeping like sleepwalking or sleep talking, dyssomnia where timing, quality and quantity of sleep is impaired.

While sleeping human dream too and that is of different kinds like REM, NREM and Lucid dreams that depends on the dreamer while sleeping and the kind of sleep too. For example, let’s take an example as in year 1964 a 17 years old boy at Navy Medical Neuropsychiatric Research Centre in Unites States Naval Hospital at San Diego California who didn’t sleep for 264 hours continuously and that caused several problems to his body, mind and vision. This patient was closely observed by Dr. William Dement. According to Dr. William Dement on first day the boy was okay as he was feeling refreshing but on second day the boy found that the vision of the boy was diminishing and he was getting difficulty in opening his eyes correctly while he was trying to watch a movie and then next day it was found that the boy was not able watch the television properly. Slowly, on next day he found that his mood changed and his tongue was also seemed as twisters. On fourth day the body found significant changes as memory lapse, difficulty in concentrating on the things, feeling of a tight band around his head, and his vision was like that he was observing the fog in the street. On fifth day, the boy’s equilibrium was balance but he caught with intermittent hypnogogic reveries. Slowly, the blurred vision of the boy for next few days got in to more problem. For the last 2 days, anything he was hearing seem like foolish to him as he was not able to memorise the things he heard on the first day.   After this the patient finally went for a sleep and slept for more than 14 hours continuously.

This example signifies about the sleep deprivation and its effects on the body and mind of the people who don’t take proper sleep. The healthy boy whose initial blood pressure was 120/180 Hg, pulse rate was 72 and temperature was 36.1 C got significant changes. Even though during the awaking the pupils of the boy reacted normally but there seemed some significant movements in his body and mind with the time of awakening. Sleep deprivation causes number of harmful things to the human body and sometime causes the fatal diseases too if the sleep deprivation goes on continuous. In this sleep deprivation initially, there is abnormal behaviour happens but after some time it goes normal after some days. The most important body part that affected much is eye and mind. Sleep deprivation increases the psychiatric difficulties in the body and it take long time to recover than sleep deprivation is occurs. Because of this the life style and body thinking goes change and sometime things seem as not perfect because of the lack of concentration, mood change and memory lapse. Physical and mental conditions get change with the time if sleep deprivation goes for longer time and no proper meditation is done. Mediations improve the consciousness of the body and allow thinking on focused objects. In the above example the sleep deprivation for a long time may lose the concentration and memory strength and that can be achieved through the meditation. Mediation is very important in case of having the sleep deprivation because it reduces the blood pressure and controls the human emotions.

People use some drugs to control the sleep deprivation like hypnosis that controls the pain of the body and helps in power suggestion in thinking, feelings and sensations. The humans who take the drug occasionally and frequently also get in to the sleep deprivation problem because the drugs affect the human brain thoroughly and speed up the activity in the central nervous system. It also changes the behaviour relatively and stimulates the organism. Conditioning response of the body become weak. In the 17 years boy example, it was observed that the behaviour of the boy got change after the sleep deprivation for 264 hours and it causes the number of changes in the boy’s mental and physical activities for a long time. These changes get reverse in normal conditions after a 6 -8 months of proper mediation and care of the boy. Thus, the final outcome is that sleep deprivation is not good for human body and mind.



A psychological view on femininity and gender

Femininity refers to behaviour and ideas associated with womanliness or normative female sexuality, separable from women’s anatomical sex. As intersexual, men and women can all possess femininity, so historically the organization of this quality is quite diverse. Particularly in the transnational movement of ideas, practices and habits, conflicts occur over how feminine normality is to be understood and enforced. Thus it is important to explore femininity as such in relation to political spatiality’s or regions. In light of current Pacific Area politics and commodity flows it is illuminating to see questions of femininity via regional politics among Tokyo, London, New York, Shanghai and Beijing rather than, for instance, Buenos Aires, Mexico, Madrid, Paris and Washington. Events in Tokyo, London, Washington, Shanghai and Beijing lay at the bottom of one crisis that erupted over the question of who definitively owned normal femininity in the period of colonial modernity.

The power of transnational capital to transform states and rewrite interregional trade relations accelerated in the mid-19th  century, when Brit ain,  the United States and other imperialists sought to marketise China and Japan and assimilate the Korean peninsula into a new region named the Far East  (now  East  Asia).  The Japanese Imperial Meiji state rose and the Chinese Qing dynasty devolved to a weak form of republicanism. As the United States accelerated its empire building in the Pacific, sub imperialism emerged in which the Japanese state and corporate it ies seized territory, markets and labour on the China mainland, Taiwan, Okinawa, Korea and other traditional Chinese suzerainties.

Feminism is often portrayed as a monolithic entity, a unitary political movement with a single agenda, a relic of the past. This lecture introduces students to a social movement and body of scholarship that remains at heart, dynamic rather than static, diverse rather than uniform. It engages with liberal feminism, radical (or cultural) feminism, equality feminism, difference feminism, corporeal feminism, intersectional feminism, and poststructuralist feminism. We also trace the institutionalisation of gender studies in the academy through women’s studies, with an emphasis on the Australian context.

For example three movies named “Personal Best”, “A League of their own”, and “Pumping Iron II” visualise the ideas of being Female, Feminine and Feminist. The all problems of disclosing or interpretating which are personified in such a way that this kind of feminism language in these movies is explained and this only think about the feminism and gender.

The movie “Personal Best” is the story of two friends who got in to a personal relationship as lovers and struggled about their personal relationship to make in balance for their athletic ambitions in their life. The producers or directors of this movie were trying to show a leap or take a leap in means of broaching a topic that was not acceptable during that time. While making a strong attempt to visualize or characterize Femininity concept and being feminine, was more than people thinking because feminine was not in traditional to show her as an image of gentle, soft-spoken sweat girl dresses with pretty clothes but it was sexually charged feeling girl which was rather than a normal girl. In movies visualization of showing pictures of women who are strong, athletic, sexy, bold and beautiful on the track field means to redefine some of our preconceptions of what is feminine.

Most of the movies that show the sprinkled with lots of scenes of naked females during steam bath or over top clothes of female while completing the high jump the women are showing their naked body in most of Hollywood movies. These movies and show compel us to think what is femininity or what does it stand for? People think that feminine can only be seen if the women are a writer or director who has the thought of women.

The directors or producers of the movies “A League of their Own” were analysed a lot before writing scripting to show feminine in their scenes that gave personality and depth to each of the characters that femininity have its different forms. They showed the women in different forms and visualised to show that beauty queens, farm girls and sex pots all these characters are feminine. This movie successfully showed that how social pleasures can be by feminine during the time with scenes of the girls acting feminine on the field, taking etiquette classes and these women was judged on their beauty. All these things were successfully demonstrated in this movie and it is a good example of feminine gender.  Particularly, conventionally it can be observed that the least attractive girl or women is also seen as conventionally feminine.

It can be seen that through visualisation in this movie that the commentary on feminism predicts the actual meaning of feminism. It shows explores of women’s desire to play or act the same as men, and play sports as men and bear all the difficulties as men. The women can achieve all things of athletic quality as men. After the baseball league war the women did not persist because of the fact that the movement on a great stride for the women for equality in the last centuries shows a strong feminine perspective. If you look in to the deep thought of the movie you will see that all women in this movie are feminists having their strong desire for their own right as equally as men. Also to break cultural expectations and stereotypes for breaking the myth to play same game as men they did everything.

In another case if you will watch movie “Pumping Iron II” which is based on female bodybuilders. This addressed the femininity in society and was able to depict what is femininity. The complete focus was on Women International body building competition and the standards for the women defined in the competition.