International Spill overs and Water Quality in Rivers: Do Countries Free Ride?

Spill over problem is a big issue for the whole world because due to this the quality of water decreases and causes a lot of problems. Spill over causes the environmental issues, climate change, ozone depletion and acid rains. A lot of research has been done on environmental issues by the whole world to resolve it but few of them are in practice. Statistical analysis also made from the river and environmental data. The data given by GEMS for the 49 countries describes the difference between domestic observations (68%) and international observations (32%).

The river water quality is also affected by human population. We see that a lot of causes the water quality degradation in rivers. International rivers flow more than the domestic rivers because of pollutant concentration. This data has been verified from the GEMS river flow data and temperature. The effect of spill overs on pollution can be determined using statistics equations including the factors like upstream pollution, GDP per capita etc. While doing statistical analysis it shows some errors in estimation because of differences in monitoring frequencies. The effect varies from one country to another as variability in data for domestic and international stations.

The pollution level at the upstream boarder’s stations is 42% higher than the other stations. Statistically determined point estimates on downstream are lower than the upper stream. Statistical analysis sometime is difficult because it includes countries effect which varies frequently. The countries where there are shared rivers the free riding national pollution level will be higher as compared to others. External borders to the EU, upstream stations have higher up to 111% more pollution level than others. In EU stations according to statistical analysis the free riding is less than non-EU upstream stations. There are some more factors which also affects the cost and benefits of water quality. The population in upstream stations have significantly positive coefficient as illustrated in the report. Including country effect in upstream population the elasticity is 0.007.

Rate of flow of river enters with negative coefficient which is consistent with dilution. In upper stream the deoxygenating rate, denoted by ‘k’ has significantly positive point estimate which is inconsistent to lower stream. But if you introduce country effect while analysing the spill over and water quality in rivers, the obtained time trend is significantly positive. The empirical analysis analyse that the international spill overs impair water quality in rivers. Pollution in the stations outside of EU has higher than the other stations. This report suggests that there is nothing any kind of collaboration among the countries regarding this kind of spill over problem and sharing the rivers to the boarders.

Overall it suggests that if there is no river sharing among the countries and also if there is no proper environment situations available to handle this kind of spill over problems it is very difficult to overcome this problem.